What is a Hydraulic Crane?

A hydraulic crane is a heavy-duty equipment used for lifting and hoisting of objects. Hydraulic cranes made with an internal hydraulic system that allows the crane to lift smaller to havier loads.
Hydraulic crane is used to lift objects as heavy shipping container and tractor trailers, which are well beyond the size and scope of any other lifting device.

Hydraulic Cranes

Working principle of hydraulic crane

A hydraulic crane operates on the principles of hydraulics, which is the science and technology of using fluids to transmit force. The basic working principle of a hydraulic crane involves the use of hydraulic fluid to generate force and movement.

Here’s a simplified explanation of the working principle of a hydraulic crane:

Hydraulic Fluid: The crane’s hydraulic system consists of a specialized hydraulic fluid (usually oil) that is stored in a reservoir.

Pump: A hydraulic pump is responsible for drawing the hydraulic fluid from the reservoir and pressurizing it. This pump can be driven by an electric motor, an internal combustion engine, or other power sources.

Pressure Line: The pressurized hydraulic fluid is then directed through a series of hoses or pipes to various hydraulic components.

Control Valves: Control valves are used to regulate the flow of hydraulic fluid to different parts of the crane. These valves are operated by the crane operator using a control panel or joystick.

Cylinders: Hydraulic cylinders are devices that use the hydraulic pressure to create linear motion. In a crane, these cylinders are attached to various parts of the crane, such as the boom, and they extend or retract as hydraulic fluid is directed into or out of them.

What is Industrial Hydraulic Crane – Working, Equipments, Facts

Boom and Hydraulic Arm: The boom and hydraulic arm of the crane are manipulated by the extension and retraction of hydraulic cylinders. This movement allows the crane to lift, lower, and move loads.

Counterweights: Counterweights are often used to balance the load and prevent the crane from tipping over. They can also be adjusted using the hydraulic system to optimize stability.

Hydraulic Motors: In some cases, hydraulic motors are used to provide rotary motion. For example, they can be used to rotate the crane’s superstructure.

Safety Systems: Modern hydraulic cranes are equipped with various safety features, including pressure relief valves, limit switches, and other mechanisms to prevent overloading and ensure safe operation.

How does a hydraulic crane work?

By forcing oil through a system of pistons, hoses, and pumps, hydraulic cranes are able to produce an immense amount of power to lift the heavy load. Once the hydraulic system has been fully pressurized, the pistons move the oil back and forth to generate the power to lift the heavy load.

The system is completely sealed, helping maintain the pressure inside. The crane performance is affected if any leakage in the hydraulic system, the pressure is lost. There are some planned leaks to allow the oil to keep the moving parts lubricated, although it is still contained within the system.

Hydraulic crane is based on a simple concept — the transmission of forces from point to point or one point to another point through a fluid. Most hydraulic machines uses some sort of incompressible fluid, a fluid that is at its maximum density.
Oil is incompressible fluid for hydraulic machines, including hydraulic cranes. In a simple hydraulic system, when a piston pushes down on the oil, the oil transmits all of the original force to another piston, which is driven up.

Basic Equipment of Hydraulic Crane

Basic equipment on a hydraulic truck crane :

Boom – Boom mainly responsible for lifting the load. It’s also called the large arm of crane.

Counterweights – Multi-ton weights placed on the back of the cab to prevent the crane from tipping during lifts the load

Two-gear pump – Hydraulic pump system, uses two rotating gears to pressurize oil in this.

Outriggers – Supports that keep the crane balanced

Jib – It’s lattice structure that extends out of the boom

Rotex gear – It’s large gear under the cab that allows the boom to be rotated when it operate

Load Moment Indicator – Array of lights located in the cab just above the operator’s eye level; flashes if crane’s lifting limits are reached

Hydraulic Crane Load Capacity

The load capacity of hydraulic cranes varies widely depending on the specific type and model of the crane. Hydraulic cranes are designed to lift and move heavy loads using hydraulic power, and their capacity is usually specified in terms of the maximum weight they can lift.

Telescopic Boom Truck Cranes: These cranes are mounted on trucks and have a telescoping boom. Load capacities for these cranes can range from a few tons to over 1,000 tons, depending on the size and model.

Rough Terrain Cranes: Designed for off-road operations, rough terrain cranes have the ability to navigate uneven and rough surfaces. Their load capacities can vary, but they typically range from 30 tons to 150 tons or more.

Crawler Cranes: Crawler cranes are mounted on tracks, providing stability and mobility on various terrains. They are known for their high lifting capacities, often ranging from 50 tons to 3,000 tons or more.

All-Terrain Cranes: These cranes combine the mobility of truck-mounted cranes with the ability to operate off-road like crawler cranes. All-terrain cranes typically have load capacities ranging from 50 tons to 1,200 tons.

Hydraulic Truck Cranes: These cranes are mounted on standard trucks and are known for their versatility. Load capacities for hydraulic truck cranes can range from 10 tons to 500 tons.

10 Facts About Industrial Hydraulic Crane

Why is it called crane?

If you search crane on google, you’ll get a mixture of lifting cranes and this fun looking bird, also called a crane! Crane birds are tall and slender, bendy, and quick with their beaks, Due to early crane manufacturers thought and they looked like these birds so lifting cranes got their name

Where first crane was invented?

The first crane was a primitive, wooden form powered by humans and animals, used to pull heavy objects and construct. One of the most famous buildings in Greek’s, the Parthenon, shows evidence of cranes used in its construction. The first crane was built by the Ancient Greeks in 500 BC.

Jibs Changed the Game

In the Middle Ages, what we know now as a Jib was added to the Greek crane which allowed the crane’s arm to move horizontally and not just vertically! Following this advancement, cranes began to first be used in harbors to unload cargo from ships – something that modern cranes are still doing now. By the sixteenth century, cranes were built with two treadmills, one on each side of a rotating housing containing the boom.

From Wooden to Steel

As mentioned above, the earliest cranes in ancient Greece were made of wooden which did the trick back in the day but wouldn’t have the strength to stand up against some of the heavy jobs. So, now cranes are usually manufactured using steel to lift heavy load.

The First Powered Cranes Were Run by Steam

In nineteenth century, cranes still relied on human or animal power. After that invention of the steam engine! This technology was introduced to cranes and allowed them to be powered by a motor. By the end of the nineteenth century, internal combustion engines and electric motors were used to power cranes which made it power full.

Cranes Build Themselves

That’s right, cranes oftentimes build themselves. The only thing large enough and strong enough to build cranes, is other cranes. With the help of workers, operators use the crane to attach vital pieces of equipment. 

Different Types of Cranes

Different types of cranes can be found different type of construction project, each one specializing in its own specific task. Here are just a few of the most popular crane name:

Mobile Cranes – A mobile crane is a cable-controlled crane mounted on crawlers or rubber-tired carriers or a hydraulic-powered crane with a telescoping boom mounted on truck-type carriers .

Carry Deck Crane – A carry deck crane is a small four wheel crane with a 360 degree rotating boom housed in the center of the machine.

Crane Vessel – A crane vessel, crane ship or floating crane is a ship with a crane specialized in lifting heavy loads. The largest crane vessels are used for offshore construction.

Rough Terrain Crane – These cranes are used for pick and carry operations off-road and on rough terrains.

World largest crane

The SGC – 250, the Sarens Giant Crane also known as ‘Big Carl’, is a 250,000t/m heavy crane designed to sgc-250 crane accommodate the heavy lifting requirements for refinery, oil and gas, mining, offshore platform, and third-generation components for nuclear power plants.

Built in 2015, this crane has a maximum lift capacity of 5,000-tons and features a 118m – 160.5m main boom configuration with a 40.5m – 99.5 m heavy-duty jib configuration. It operates on a 48.5m outer ring and requires a 5,200-ton counterweight. The jib can be extended up to 100 meters, giving it a maximum height of 250 meters (820 feet) and radius 275 meters (902 feet).

Strongest Mobile Crane

Designed by Liebherr which is located in Switzerland, the mobile crane, LTM 11200-9.1, is the strongest telescopic LTM 11200-9.1 mobile crane in the market and offers the world’s longest telescopic boom. It has a maximum lift capacity capacity of 1,200-tons, a maximum hoisting height of 188 meters (616 feet) and a maximum radius of 136 meters (446 feet) – This is over the length of a football field – can you believe! 

Cranes can be Dangerous

As much as we admire the beauty and versatility of cranes – At the end of the day, they are a very large and potentially dangerous piece of machinery. Failure to follow safe lifting practices can lead to serious personal injury and cause damage to equipment and facilities. However, with proper training, inspections & maintenance, and workplace protocol you can greatly reduce the likelihood of many safety hazards.


What is a hydraulic crane?
A hydraulic crane is a type of material handling equipment that uses hydraulic systems to lift, move, and lower heavy loads. It is commonly used in construction, manufacturing, and other industries for tasks such as lifting and placing heavy materials, loading and unloading cargo, and erecting structures. The key components of a hydraulic crane include a boom (a long, extending arm), a hydraulic cylinder or cylinders, and a hydraulic pump.

What is the purpose of a hydraulic crane?
The purpose of hydraulic cranes is to remain stable while lifting heavy weights. Although cranes have been used throughout the history of construction engineering, hydraulic cranes use a more technical design.

What are the applications of hydraulic crane?
Hydraulic lifts are used to lift heavy objects such as cars, trucks, and airplanes. They work by using a hydraulic pump to pressurize a fluid, which is then used to move a piston. The piston is connected to the object that needs to be lifted, and when the fluid is pressurized, the piston moves upward, lifting the object.

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By Aditya

Hi, I’m Aditya Sharma, a professional blogger from Gurgaon, India and I launched this blog called aadityacademy on July 2021. aadityacademy.com is a mechanical Project-oriented platform run by Aditya sharma and I got the motivation to start aadityacademy blog after seeing less technical education information available on google.

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