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**Total pressure and Centre of pressure**

In fluid mechanics, the terms total pressure and centre of pressure are often used when discussing the behavior of fluid flow around objects.

**Total Pressure**

Total pressure, also known as stagnation pressure or dynamic pressure, is the sum of the static pressure (pressure exerted by the fluid) and the dynamic pressure (pressure due to the fluid’s motion). It represents the total energy per unit volume of a fluid flowing at a certain velocity. Total pressure is typically measured using a Pitot tube, which is a device that measures the stagnation pressure of a fluid.

**Center of Pressure**

The center of pressure refers to the point on a body immersed in a fluid where the resultant force of the fluid pressure acts. It is the equivalent of the center of gravity for the distribution of pressure forces. The position of the center of pressure depends on the shape of the object and the distribution of pressure over its surface.

When an object is symmetrically shaped, the center of pressure coincides with the center of gravity. However, for asymmetrical objects or objects subjected to non-uniform flow conditions, the center of pressure may shift.

The center of pressure is important to consider in engineering applications, such as designing wings for aircraft or stabilizing structures, as it affects the overall stability and balance of the object.

In summary, total pressure refers to the combined static and dynamic pressures in a fluid flow, while the center of pressure represents the point where the resultant fluid pressure force acts on an object.

**Total Pressure**

Total pressure, also known as stagnation pressure or dynamic pressure, is a concept in fluid mechanics that represents the total energy per unit volume of a flowing fluid. It is the sum of the static pressure and the dynamic pressure.

**Static Pressure:** Static pressure is the pressure exerted by a fluid at a specific point in a flow field. It is the pressure measured when the fluid is not in motion or at rest. It is the force per unit area exerted by the fluid molecules colliding with the walls or surfaces of a container or an object immersed in the fluid.

**Dynamic Pressure: **Dynamic pressure is the pressure due to the motion of a fluid. It arises from the kinetic energy of the fluid particles in motion. It is proportional to the square of the fluid velocity and can be considered as the difference between the total pressure and the static pressure.

Total pressure is often measured using a device called a Pitot tube, which is designed to measure the stagnation pressure of a fluid. A Pitot tube has an open end that faces the fluid flow, while the other end is connected to a pressure measuring device. By aligning the open end of the Pitot tube with the direction of flow, the pressure measured is the sum of the static pressure and the dynamic pressure, which is the total pressure.

Total pressure is useful in various engineering applications, such as aerodynamics, HVAC systems, fluid flow analysis, and hydraulic systems. It provides insights into the energy distribution and behavior of fluid flow in different scenarios.

**Center of Pressure**

The center of pressure is a concept in fluid mechanics and aerodynamics that refers to the point on a body or surface where the resultant force of the fluid pressure acts. It is the equivalent of the center of gravity for the distribution of pressure forces.

When a fluid flows around an object, such as an airfoil or a submerged body, it exerts pressure on the surface of the object. This pressure distribution generates forces, including lift and drag. The center of pressure is the point on the object where the total force due to pressure acts. It is the point where the object experiences an equal amount of force on either side.

The position of the center of pressure depends on several factors, including the shape of the object, the fluid flow conditions, and the angle of attack (for aerodynamic applications). For symmetrical objects, the center of pressure is typically located at the midpoint of the object or at the aerodynamic center. However, for asymmetrical objects or objects subjected to non-uniform flow conditions, the center of pressure may shift.

The center of pressure is an important consideration in engineering and design applications. In aircraft design, we must carefully manage the center of pressure to ensure stability and control during flight. If the center of pressure is too far forward or backward, it can lead to undesirable effects like pitching moments or instability.

In summary, the center of pressure represents the point on an object where the resultant force due to fluid pressure acts. The position of various factors influences it and it plays a crucial role in determining the stability and behavior of immersed or interacting objects in fluid flows.

### Convert the height of water column equivalent to pressure of 20n/cm2.

To convert the height of a water column to pressure, you can use the formula:

Pressure = ρ × g × h

Where:

Pressure is the pressure exerted by the water column (in Pascals or N/m²)

ρ (rho) is the density of water (approximately 1000 kg/m³)

g is the acceleration due to gravity (approximately 9.8 m/s²)

h is the height of the water column (in meters)

Given that the pressure is 20 N/cm², we first need to convert it to Pascals:

1 N/cm² = 10000 N/m² (since there are 100 cm in a meter)

So, 20 N/cm² = 20 × 10000 N/m² = 200,000 N/m² (or 200,000 Pa)

Now we can calculate the height of the water column:

Pressure = ρ × g × h

200,000 Pa = 1000 kg/m³ × 9.8 m/s² × h

h = 200,000 Pa / (1000 kg/m³ × 9.8 m/s²)

h ≈ 20.41 meters

Therefore, the height of the water column equivalent to a pressure of 20 N/cm² is approximately 20.41 meters.

**Total Pressure and Centre of Pressure**

### Convert 30 cm of oil column in n/cm2, take specific gravity of oil as 1.2.

To convert the height of an oil column to pressure, you can use the formula:

Pressure = ρ × g × h

Where:

Pressure is the pressure exerted by the oil column (in Pascals or N/m²)

ρ (rho) is the density of the oil

g is the acceleration due to gravity (approximately 9.8 m/s²)

h is the height of the oil column (in meters)

Given that the specific gravity of the oil is 1.2, it means that the density of the oil is 1.2 times that of water (ρ_oil = 1.2 × ρ_water).

Let’s assume the density of water is approximately 1000 kg/m³.

First, we calculate the density of the oil:

Density of oil (ρ_oil) = Specific Gravity × Density of water

= 1.2 × 1000 kg/m³

= 1200 kg/m³

Next, we convert the height of the oil column from centimeters to meters:

Height of oil column (h) = 30 cm = 0.3 meters

Now we can calculate the pressure exerted by the oil column:

Pressure = ρ × g × h

= 1200 kg/m³ × 9.8 m/s² × 0.3 meters

≈ 3536 Pa

Finally, we convert the pressure from Pascals to N/cm²:

1 Pa = 0.00001 N/cm²

Pressure in N/cm² = 3536 Pa × 0.00001 N/cm²/Pa

≈ 0.03536 N/cm²

Therefore, the pressure exerted by a 30 cm oil column is approximately 0.03536 N/cm².

**Total Pressure and Centre of Pressure**

**FAQ**

**What is meant by total pressure?**

Total pressure is the sum of static pressure p, dynamic pressure q, and gravitational load. It is the measure of the total energy of the air stream and is equal to static pressure plus velocity pressure. Total pressure is the sum of static and dynamic pressures.

**What is meant by center of pressure?**

The center of pressure applies the pressure force on average. Think of it like the center of gravity, the location where the average weight of an object is, except this time it is the location of the average pressure. The center of pressure exerts the lift and drag forces.

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